The Scottish Monarchs

Scotland was an independent kingdom in its own right from the 840s AD until 1707, when it merged with the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, which in turn merged with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801 to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which in turn split in 1922, with Scotland remaining with the new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which has existed since. The country was part of the republic commonwealth between 1651 and 1660. The country became a de facto independent again in 1715, and between 1745 and 1746, when the Jacobite forces conquered most of the country in the name of the pretender James VIII, who during those brief times was de facto King of Scotland.

This list only covers monarchs of the Kingdom of Scotland – those prior to 1707, and those during the Jacobite uprisings.

The country was called the Kingdom of the Picts until the 890s. The Scottish monarch was thus titled the King of the Picts until the 890s, and the King of Scotland (or Queen of Scotland when a woman) from then until the merger into Great Britain. The monarchs often also used the title King of Scots (or Queen of Scots) from the 1000s.

Kenneth I (MacAlpin)

843 – 13 February 858

House of Alpin

Donald I

858 – 13 April 862

House of Alpin

Brother of Kenneth I

Constantine I

862-877

House of Alpin

Son of Kenneth I, nephew of Donald I

Áed

877-878

House of Alpin

Son of Kenneth I, brother of Constantine I

Giric (Son of Fortune)

878 – 889

Eochaid

878-889 (uncertain)

Grandson of Kenneth I, nephew of Constantine I and Áed

Donald II

889 – 900

House of Alpin

Son of Constantine I, first cousin of Eochaid

Constantine II

900 – 943

House of Alpin

Son of Áed, first cousin of Donald II

Malcolm I

943 – 954

House of Alpin

Son of Donald II, first cousin once removed of Constantine II

Indulf

954 – 962

House of Alpin

Son of Constantine II, second cousin of Malcolm I

Dub

962 – 967

House of Alpin

Son of Malcolm I, second cousin once removed of Indulf

Cuilén

967 – 971

House of Alpin

Son of Indulf, third cousin of Dub

Amlaíb

971 – either 976 or 977

House of Alpin

Son of Indulf, brother of Cuilén

Kenneth II

971 – 995

House of Alpin

Son of Malcolm I, third cousin of Cuilén and Amlaíb

Constantine III (the Bald)

995 – 997

House of Alpin

Son of Cuilén, third cousin once removed of Kenneth II

Kenneth III

997 – c.25 March 1005

House of Alpin

Son of Dub, fourth cousin of Constantine III

Malcolm II

c.25 March 1005 – 25 November 1034

House of Alpin

Son of Kenneth II, first cousin of Kenneth III

Duncan I

1034 – 1040

House of Dunkeld

Grandson of Malcolm II

Macbeth

1040 – 1057

House of Moray

Grandson-in-law of either Kenneth II or Kenneth III, possible grandson of Malcolm II, possible first cousin of Duncan I

Lulach

15 August 1057 – 17 March 1058

House of Moray

Stepson of Macbeth, great-grandson of either Kenneth II or Kenneth III

Malcolm III (Canmore)

1058 – 13 November 1093

House of Dunkeld

Son of Duncan I, possible second cousin once removed of Lulach

Donald III

1093 – May 1094

House of Dunkeld

Son of Duncan I, brother of Malcolm III

Duncan II

1094

House of Dunkeld

Son of Malcolm III, nephew of Donald III

Donald III

12 November 1094 – 1097

House of Dunkeld

Son of Duncan I, uncle of Duncan II

Edgar

1097 – 1107

House of Dunkeld

Son of Malcolm III, nephew of Donald III

Alexander I (the Fierce)

1107 – 1124

House of Dunkeld

Son of Malcolm III, brother of Edgar

(Saint) David I

Either April or May 1124 – 24 May 1153

House of Dunkeld

Son of Malcolm III, brother of Edgar and Alexander I

Malcolm IV

24 May 1153 – 9 December 1165

House of Dunkeld

Grandson of David I

William I (the Lion)

9 December 1165 – 4 December 1214

House of Dunkeld

Grandson of David I, brother of Malcolm IV

Alexander II

4 December 1214 – 6 July 1249

House of Dunkeld

Son of William I

Alexander III

6 July 1249 – 19 March 1286

House of Dunkeld

Son of Alexander II

Margaret (Maid of Norway)

1286 – either 26 or 29 September 1290

House of Sverre

Granddaughter of Alexander III

John (Balliol)

17 November 1292 – 10 July 1296

House of Balliol

Great-great-great-grandson of David I, third cousin of Margaret

Robert I (the Bruce)

25 March 1306 – 7 June 1329

House of Bruce

Great-great-great-great-grandson of David I, second cousin once removed of John

David II

7 June 1329 – 11 August 1332

House of Bruce

Son of Robert I

Edward I (Balliol)

24 September – 16 December 1332

House of Balliol

Son of John, third cousin once removed of David II

David II

16 December 1332 – 20 July 1333

House of Bruce

Son of Robert I, third cousin once removed of Edward I

Edward I (Balliol)

20 July 1333 – 1334

House of Balliol

Son of John, third cousin once removed of David II

David II

1334 – 22 February 1371

House of Bruce

Son of Robert I, third cousin once removed of Edward I

Robert II

22 February 1371 – 19 April 1390

House of Stewart

Grandson of Robert I, nephew of David II

Robert III

19 April 1390 – 4 April 1406

House of Stewart

Son of Robert II

James I

4 April 1406 – 21 February 1437

House of Stewart

Son of Robert III

James II

21 February 1437 – 3 August 1460

House of Stewart

Son of James I

James III

3 August 1460 – 11 June 1488

House of Stewart

Son of James II

James IV

11 June 1488 – 9 September 1513

House of Stewart

Son of James III

James V

9 September 1513 – 14 December 1542

House of Stewart

Son of James IV

Mary I

14 December 1542 – 24 July 1567

House of Stewart/Stuart

Daughter of James V

James VI

24 July 1567 – 27 March 1625

House of Stuart

Son of Mary I

Charles I

27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649

House of Stuart

Son of James VI

Charles II

30 January 1649 – 3 September 1651

8 May 1660 – 6 February 1685

House of Stuart

Son of Charles I

James VII

6 February 1685 – 11 April 1689

House of Stuart

Son of Charles I, brother of Charles II

Mary II

11 April 1689 – 28 December 1694

House of Stuart

Daughter of James VII

William II

11 April 1689 – 8 March 1702

House of Orange-Nassau

Grandson of Charles I, nephew and son-in-law of James VII, husband and first cousin of Mary II

Anne

8 March 1702 – 1 May 1707

House of Stuart

Daughter of James VII, first cousin and sister-in-law of William II

James VIII

October 1715

18 September 1745 – 16 April 1746

House of Stuart

Son of James VII, half-brother of Mary II and Anne

Sources:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Scottish_monarchs

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Francis_Edward_Stuart

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