The World’s Leaders: A List – C

My list continued. See A and B for the (regularly updated) first parts.

[Edit 6 Jan 2022: Cambodia’s former prime minister Norodom Ranariddh has passed away. Cape Verde has had a change of president, with José Maria Neves succeeding Jorge Carlos Fonseca. Czechia has had a change of prime minister, with Petr Fiala succeeding Andrej Babiš.]

CAMBODIA

The Kingdom of Cambodia’s current state leaders are King Norodom Sihamoni (born 1953), who assumed the throne on 14 October 2004; and Prime Minister Hun Sen (born 1952), who assumed office on 26 December 1984 (jointly from 24 September 1993 until 30 November 1998).

Norodom Sihamoni

Hun Sen

Living is former Chairman of the State Presidium Khieu Samphan (born 1931), who held office from 11 April 1976 until 7 January 1979 when the country was called Kampuchea.

Khieu Samphan

Also living is former President of the Council of State Heng Samrin (born 1934), who held office from 10 January 1979 until 6 April 1992 (as Chairman of the People’s Revolutionary Council until 27 June 1981) when the country was called Kampuchea.

Heng Samrin

Also living are former Prime Ministers Khieu Samphan (born 1931), who held office in an acting capacity from 4 April 1976 until 14 April 1976; and Ung Huot (born 1945), who held office from 6 August 1997 until 30 November 1998.

Khieu Samphan

Ung Huot

CAMEROON

The Republic of Cameroon’s current state leaders are President Paul Biya (born 1933), who assumed office on 6 November 1982; and Prime Minister Joseph Ngute (born 1954), who assumed office on 4 January 2019.

Paul Biya

Joseph Ngute

Living are former Prime Ministers Paul Biya (born 1933), who held office from 30 June 1975 until 6 November 1982; Bello Bouba Maigari (born 1947), who held office from 6 November 1982 until 22 August 1983; Luc Ayang (born 1947), who held office from 22 August 1983 until 25 January 1984; Peter Mafany Musogne (born 1942), who held office from 19 September 1996 until 8 December 2004; Ephraïm Inoni (born 1947), who held office from 8 December 2004 until 30 June 2009; and Philémon Yang (born 1947), who held office from 30 June 2009 until 4 January 2019.

Paul Biya

Bello Bouba Maigari
Luc Ayang
Peter Mafany Musogne
Ephraïm Inoni
Philémon Yang

CANADA

Canada’s current state leaders are Queen Elizabeth II (born 1926), who assumed the throne on 6 February 1952; Governor General Mary Simon (born 1947), who assumed office on 26 July 2021; and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (born 1971), who assumed office on 4 November 2015.

Elizabeth II

Mary Simon

Justin Trudeau

Living are former Governors General Edward Schreyer (born 1935), who held office from 22 January 1979 until 14 May 1984; Adrienne Clarkson (born 1939), who held office from 7 October 1999 until 27 September 2005; Michaëlle Jean (born 1957), who held office from 27 September 2005 until 1 October 2010; David Johnston (born 1941), who held office from 1 October 2010 until 2 October 2017; and Julie Payette (born 1963), who held office from 2 October 2017 until 22 January 2021.

Edward Schreyer

Adrienne Clarkson

Michaëlle Jean

David Johnston

Julie Payette

Also living is former Administrator Richard Wagner (born 1957), who held office from 23 January 2021 until 26 July 2021.

Richard Wagner

Also living are former Prime Ministers Joe Clark (born 1939), who held office from 4 June 1979 until 3 March 1980; Brian Mulroney (born 1939), who held office from 17 September 1984 until 25 June 1993; Kim Campbell (born 1947), who held office from 25 June 1993 until 4 November 1993; Jean Chrétien (born 1934), who held office from 4 November 1993 until 12 December 2003; Paul Martin (born 1938), who held office from 12 December 2003 until 6 February 2006; and Stephen Harper (born 1959), who held office from 6 February 2006 until 4 November 2015.

Joe Clark

Brian Mulroney

Kim Campbell

Jean Chrétien

Paul Martin

Stephen Harper

CAPE VERDE

The Republic of Cabo Verde’s current state leaders are President José Maria Neves (born 1960), who assumed office on 9 November 2021; and Prime Minister Ulisses Correia e Silva (born 1962), who assumed office on 22 April 2016.

José Maria Neves

Ulisses Correia e Silva

Living are former Presidents Pedro Pires (born 1934), who held office from 22 March 2001 until 9 September 2011; and Jorge Carlos Fonseca (born 1950), who held office from 9 September 2011 until 9 November 2021.

Pedro Pires

Jorge Carlos Fonseca

Also living are former Prime Ministers Pedro Pires (born 1934), who held office from 8 July 1975 until 4 April 1991; Carlos Viega (born 1949), who held office from 4 April 1991 until 29 July 2000; Gualberto do Rosário (born 1950), who held office from 29 July 2000 until 1 February 2001; and José Maria Neves (born 1960), who held office from 1 February 2001 until 22 April 2016.

Pedro Pires

Carlos Viega

Gualberto do Rosário

José Maria Neves

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

The Central African Republic’s current state leaders are President Faustin-Archange Touadéra (born 1957), who assumed office on 30 March 2016; and Prime Minister Henri-Marie Dondra (born 1966), who assumed office on 15 June 2021.

Faustin-Archange Touadéra

Henri-Marie Dondra

Living are former Presidents François Bozizé (born 1946), who held office from 15 March 2003 until 24 March 2013; Michel Djotobia (born 1949), who held office from 24 March 2013 until 10 January 2014; Alexandre-Ferdinand Nguendet (born 1972), who held office in an acting capacity from 10 January 2014 until 23 January 2014; and Catherine Samba-Panza (born 1954), who held office from 23 January 2014 until 30 March 2016.

François Bozizé

Michel Djotobia

Alexandre-Ferdinand Nguendet

Catherine Samba-Panza

Also living are former Prime Ministers Henri Maïdou (born 1936), who held office from 14 July 1978 until 26 September 1979 (when the country was called the Central African Empire); Jean-Pierre Lebouder (born 1944), who held office from 12 November 1980 until 3 April 1981; Édouard Frank (born 1934), who held office from 15 March 1991 until 4 December 1992; Enoch Derant Lakoué (born 1944), who held office from 26 February 1993 until 25 October 1993; Gabriel Koyambounou (born 1947), who held office from 12 April 1995 until 6 June 1996; Michel Gbezera-Bria (born 1946), who held office from 30 January 1997 until 4 January 1999; Anicet-Georges Dologuélé (born 1957), who held office from 4 January 1999 until 1 April 2001; Martin Ziguélé (born 1957), who held office from 1 April 2001 until 15 March 2003; Élie Doté (born 1948), who held office from 13 June 2005 until 22 January 2008; Faustin-Archange Touadéra (born 1957), who held office from 22 January 2008 until 17 January 2013; Nicolas Tiangaye (born 1956), who held office from 17 January 2013 until 10 January 2014; André Nzapayeké (born 1951), who held office in an interim capacity from 25 January 2014 until 10 August 2014; Mahamat Kamoun (born 1961), who held office from 10 August 2014 until 2 April 2016; Simplice Sarandji (born 1955), who held office from 2 April 2016 until 27 February 2019; and Firmin Ngrébada (born 1968), who held office from 25 February 2019 until 15 June 2021.

Henri Maïdou

Enoch Derant Lakoué

Gabriel Koyambounou

Michel Gbezera-Bria

Anicet-Georges Dologuélé

Martin Ziguélé

Élie Doté

Faustin-Archange Touadéra

Nicolas Tiangaye

André Nzapayeké

Mahamat Kamoun

Simplice Sarandji

Firmin Ngrébada

CHAD

The Republic of Chad’s current state leaders are Chairman of the Transitional Military Council Mahamat Déby (born 1984), who assumed office on 20 April 2021; and Prime Minister Albert Pahimi Padacké (born 1966), who assumed office on 26 April 2021 (and previously held office from 15 February 2016 until 4 May 2018).

Mahamat Déby

Albert Pahimi Padacké

Living is former President Goukouni Oueddei (born 1944), who held office from 23 March 1979 until 29 April 1979, and again from 3 September 1979 until 7 June 1982.

Goukouni Oueddei

Also living are former Prime Ministers Jean Alingué Bawoyeu (born 1937), who held office from 4 March 1991 until 20 May 1992; Fidèle Moungar (born 1948), who held office from 7 April 1993 until 6 November 1993; Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye (born 1949), who held office from 6 November 1993 until 8 April 1995, and again from 26 February 2007 until 16 April 2008; Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido (born 1947), who held office from 17 May 1997 until 13 December 1999; Nagoum Yamassoum (born 1954), who held office from 12 December 1999 until 13 June 2002; Haroun Kabadi (born 1949), who held office from 12 June 2002 until 24 June 2003; Moussa Faki (born 1960), who held office from 24 June 2003 until 4 February 2005; Adoum Younousmi (born 1962), who held office in an acting capacity from 23 February 2007 until 26 February 2007; Youssouf Saleh Abbas (born 1953), who held office from 15 April 2008 until 5 March 2010; Emmanuel Nadingar (born 1951), who held office from 5 March 2010 until 21 January 2013; and Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet (born 1957), who held office from 21 November 2013 until 15 February 2016.

Jean Alingué Bawoyeu

Fidèle Moungar

Delwa Kassiré Koumakoye

Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido

Nagoum Yamassoum

Haroun Kabadi

Moussa Faki

Adoum Younousmi

Youssouf Saleh Abbas

Emmanuel Nadingar

Kalzeubet Pahimi Deubet

CHILE

The Republic of Chile’s current state leader is President Sebastián Piñera (born 1949), who assumed office on 11 March 2018 (and previously held office from 11 March 2010 until 11 March 2014).

Sebastián Piñera

Living are former Presidents Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born 1942), who held office from 11 March 1994 until 11 March 2000; Ricardo Lagos (born 1938), who held office from 11 March 2000 until 11 March 2006; and Michelle Bachelet (born 1951), who held office from 11 March 2006 until 11 March 2010, and again from 11 March 2014 until 11 March 2018.

Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle

Ricardo Lagos

Michelle Bachelet

CHINA

The People’s Republic of China’s current state leaders are General Secretary and President Xi Jinping (born 1953), who assumed office on 15 November 2012 (as General Secretary) and 14 March 2013 (as President); and Premier Li Keqiang (born 1955), who assumed office on 15 March 2013.

Xi Jinping

Li Keqiang

Living are former General Secretaries and Presidents Jiang Zemin (born 1926), who held office from 2 June 1989 until 15 November 2002 (as General Secretary) and from 27 March 1993 until 15 March 2003 (as President); and Hu Jianto (born 1942), who held office from 15 November 2002 until 15 November 2012 (as General Secretary) and from 15 March 2003 until 14 March 2013 (as President).

Jiang Zemin

Hu Jintao

Also living are former Premiers Zhu Rongji (born 1928), who held office from 17 March 1998 until 16 March 2003; and Wen Jiabao (born 1942), who held office from 15 March 2003 until 15 March 2013.

Zhu Rongji

Wen Jiabao

CISKEI

The defunct former Republic of Ciskei’s living former state leaders are former Chairman Oupa Gqozo (born 1952), who held office from 4 March 1990 until 22 March 1994; and former Administrator Bongani Finca (born 1953), who held office from 23 March 1994 until 26 April 1994.

Oupa Gqozo

Bongani Finca

COLOMBIA

The Republic of Colombia’s current state leader is President Iván Duque Márquez (born 1976), who assumed office on 7 August 2018.

Iván Duque Márquez

Living are former Presidents César Gaviria (born 1947), who held office from 7 August 1990 until 7 August 1994; Ernesto Samper (born 1950), who held office from 7 August 1994 until 7 August 1998; Andrés Pastrana Arango (born 1954), who held office from 7 August 1998 until 7 August 2002; Álvaro Uribe (born 1952), who held office from 7 August 2002 until 7 August 2010; and Juan Manuel Santos (born 1951), who held office from 7 August 2010 until 7 August 2018.

César Gaviria

Ernesto Samper

Andrés Pastrana Arango

Álvaro Uribe

Juan Manuel Santos

COMOROS

The Union of the Comoros’ current state leader is President Azali Assoumani (born 1959), who assumed office on 26 May 2019 (and previously held office from 30 April 1999 until 21 January 2002, and again from 26 May 2002 until 26 May 2006, and again from 26 May 2016 until 3 February 2019).

Azali Assoumani

Living are former Presidents Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed (born 1949), who held office in an interim capacity from 5 October 1995 until 26 January 1996; Hamada Madi, who held office in an interim capacity from 21 January 2002 until 26 May 2002; Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi (born 1958), who held office from 26 May 2006 until 26 May 2011; Ikililou Dhoinine (born 1962), who held office from 26 May 2011 until 26 May 2016; and Moustadroine Abdou (born 1969), who held office in an interim capacity from 3 February 2019 until 26 May 2019.

Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed

Hamada Madi

Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi

Ikililou Dhoinine

Moustadroine Abdou

Also living are former Prime Ministers Said Ali Mohamed (born 1946), who held office from 26 May 1993 until 19 June 1993; Ahmed Ben Cheikh Attoumane (born 1938), who held office from 20 June 1993 until 2 January 1994; Mohamed Abdou Madi (born 1956), who held office from 2 January 1994 until 14 October 1994; Halifa Houmadi (born 1947), who held office from 14 October 1994 until 29 April 1995; Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed (born 1949), who held office from 29 April 1995 until 27 March 1996; Ahmed Abdou (born 1936), who held office from 27 December 1996 until 9 September 1997; Nourdine Bourhane (born 1958), who held office from 7 December 1997 until 30 May 1998; Bianrifi Tarmidi (born 1958), who held office from 2 December 1999 until 29 November 2000; and Hamad Madi, who held office from 29 November 2000 until 15 April 2002.

Halifa Houmadi

Caabi El-Yachroutu Mohamed

Nourdine Bourhane

Hamad Madi

COOK ISLANDS

The Cook Islands’ current state leaders are Queen Elizabeth II (born 1926), who assumed the throne on 4 August 1965; Queen’s Representative Sir Tom Marsters (born 1945), who assumed office on 27 July 2013; and Prime Minister Mark Brown, who assumed office on 1 October 2020.

Elizabeth II

Sir Tom Marsters

Mark Brown

Living are former Queen’s Representatives Laurence Greig (born 1929), who held office in an acting capacity from 14 November 2000 until 9 February 2001; and Sir Frederick Tutu Goodwin, who held office from 9 February 2001 until 27 July 2013.

Sir Frederick Tutu Goodwin

Also living are former Prime Ministers Robert Woonton (born 1949), who held office from 11 February 2002 until 11 December 2004; and Henry Puna (born 1949), who held office from 30 November 2010 until 1 October 2020.

Robert Woonton

Henry Puna

COSTA RICA

The Republic of Costa Rica’s current state leader is President Carlos Alvarado Quesada (born 1980), who assumed office on 8 May 2018.

Carlos Alvarado Quesada

Living are former Presidents Óscar Arias (born 1940), who held office from 8 May 1986 until 8 May 1990, and again from 8 May 2006 until 8 May 2010; Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier (born 1949), who held office from 8 May 1990 until 8 May 1994; José María Figueres (born 1954), who held office from 8 May 1994 until 8 May 1998; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez (born 1940), who held office from 8 May 1998 until 8 May 2002; Abel Pacheco (born 1933), who held office from 8 May 2002 until 8 May 2006; Laura Chinchilla (born 1959), who held office from 8 May 2010 until 8 May 2014; and Luis Guillermo Solís (born 1958), who held office from 8 May 2014 until 8 May 2018.

Óscar Arias

Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier

José María Figueres

Miguel Ángel Rodríguez

Abel Pacheco

Laura Chinchilla

Luis Guillermo Solís

CRIMEA

The defunct former Republic of Crimea’s living former state leader is former Prime Minister Sergey Aksyonov (born 1972), who held office from 27 February 2014 until 20 September 2019.

Sergey Aksyonov

CROATIA

The Republic of Croatia’s current state leaders are President Zoran Milanović (born 1966), who assumed office on 19 February 2020; and Prime Minister Andrej Plenković (born 1970), who assumed office on 19 October 2016.

Zoran Milanović

Andrej Plenković

Living are former Presidents Zlatko Tomčić (born 1945), who held office in an acting capacity from 2 February 2000 until 18 February 2000; Stjepan Mesić (born 1934), who held office from 19 February 2000 until 18 February 2010; Ivo Josipović (born 1957), who held office from 19 February 2010 until 18 February 2015; and Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (born 1968), who held office from 19 February 2015 until 18 February 2020.

Zlatko Tomčić

Stjepan Mesić

Ivo Josipović

Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović

Also living are former Prime Ministers Josip Manolić (born 1920), who held office from 24 August 1990 until 17 July 1991; Franjo Gregurić (born 1939), who held office from 17 July 1991 until 12 August 1992; Nikica Valentić (born 1950), who held office from 3 April 1993 until 7 November 1995; Zlatko Mateša (born 1949), who held office from 7 November 1995 until 27 January 2000; Ivo Sanader (born 1953), who held office from 23 December 2003 until 6 July 2009; Jadranka Kosor (born 1953), who held office from 6 July 2009 until 23 December 2011; Zoran Milanović (born 1966), who held office from 23 December 2011 until 22 January 2016; and Tihomir Orešković (born 1966), who held office from 22 January 2016 until 19 October 2016.

Josip Manolić

Franjo Gregurić

Nikica Valentić

Zlatko Mateša

Ivo Sanader

Jadranka Kosor

Zoran Milanović

Tihomir Orešković

CUBA

The Republic of Cuba’s current state leaders are First Secretary and President Miguel Díaz-Canel (born 1960), who assumed office on 19 April 2018 (as President) and on 19 April 2021 (as First Secretary); and Prime Minister Manuel Marrero Cruz (born 1963), who assumed office on 21 December 2019.

Miguel Díaz-Canel

Manuel Marrero Cruz

Living is former First Secretary and President Raúl Castro (born 1931), who held office from 31 July 2006 until 19 April 2018 (as President) and from 19 April 2011 until 19 April 2021 (as First Secretary).

Raúl Castro

Also living are former Prime Ministers Raúl Castro (born 1931), who held office from 31 July 2006 until 19 April 2018; and Miguel Díaz-Canel (born 1960), who held office from 19 April 2018 until 21 December 2019.

Raúl Castro

Miguel Díaz-Canel

CYPRUS

The Republic of Cyprus’ current state leader is President Nicos Anastasiades (born 1946), who assumed office on 28 February 2013.

Nicos Anastasiades

Living is former President George Vassiliou (born 1931), who held office from 28 February 1988 until 28 February 1993.

George Vassiliou

CZECHIA

The Czech Republic’s current state leaders are President Miloš Zeman (born 1944), who assumed office on 8 March 2013; and Prime Minister Petr Fiala (born 1964), who assumed office on 28 November 2021.

Miloš Zeman

Petr Fiala

Living is former President Václav Klaus (born 1941), who held office from 7 March 2003 until 7 March 2013.

Václav Klaus

Also living are former Prime Ministers Václav Klaus (born 1941), who held office from 1 January 1993 until 2 January 1998; Josef Tošovský (born 1950), who held office from 2 January 1998 until 22 July 1998; Miloš Zeman (born 1944), who held office from 22 July 1998 until 15 July 2002; Vladimír Špidla (born 1951), who held office from 15 July 2002 until 4 August 2004; Jiří Paroubek (born 1952), who held office from 25 April 2005 until 4 September 2006; Mirek Topolánek (born 1956), who held office from 4 September 2006 until 8 May 2009; Jan Fischer (born 1951), who held office from 8 May 2009 until 13 July 2010; Petr Nečas (born 1964), who held office from 28 June 2010 until 10 July 2013; Jiří Rusnok (born 1960), who held office from 10 July 2013 until 29 January 2014; and Bohuslav Sobotka (born 1971), who held office from 17 January 2014 until 6 December 2017; and Andrej Babiš (born 1954), who held office from 6 December 2017 until 17 December 2021.

Václav Klaus

Josef Tošovský

Miloš Zeman

Vladimír Špidla

Jiří Paroubek

Mirek Topolánek

Jan Fischer

Petr Nečas

Jiří Rusnok

Bohuslav Sobotka

Andrej Babiš

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

The defunct former Czech and Slovak Federative Republic’s living former state leaders are former First Secretary Karel Urbánek (born 1941), who held office from 24 November 1989 until 20 December 1989; and former Prime Ministers Lubomír Štrougal (born 1924), who held office from 28 January 1970 until 12 October 1988, and Marián Čalfa (born 1946), who held office from 10 December 1989 until 2 July 1992.

Karel Urbánek

Lubomír Štrougal

Marián Čalfa

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